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What Are The Main Features of Metal Cutting Tools?

A metal cutting tool is a tool which is used to remove material from a metal work piece through the process of shear deformation. The cutting process may be achieved by using a single-point or multi-point tool. Single-point tools are used to remove material by means of one cutting edge, in shaping, turning, plaining and other similar operations. Multipoint tools are used in milling, drilling and grinding.

In order to produce top quality work pieces, a metal cutting tool must have the following features:

  • Toughness so that the tools do not fracture or chip
  • Hardness so that the tools can withstand the heat generated during the metal cutting process
  • Wear resistance so that the tool can have a long working life

It is important for metal cutting tools to be made from materials harder than the material which is going to be cut, as this ensures that the tool will withstand the heat generated during the metal cutting process.

It is also essential for the cutting tool to have particular geometry and clearance angles that allow the tool’s cutting edge to precisely contact the work piece, so that the cutting process is carried out efficiently.

Other important factors in a cutting tool are: the angle of the cutting face, and the flute width and the number of teeth or flutes. The feeds and speeds at which the cutting tool is run also need to be optimized so that the tool can have a long working life.

There are two main stages of metal cutting, distinguished by purpose and cutting conditions:

  • Roughing cuts whose purpose is to remove large amount of material from the work piece, in order to produce a shape which has close similarity to the desired shape, but some material is left on the piece for the following finishing operation, and
  • Finishing cuts whose purpose is to complete the work piece with the exact dimensions, tolerances, and surface finishes required for the work piece.

During production machining jobs, normally, one or more roughing cuts are performed on the work piece, followed by one or two finishing cuts.

During the machining operation, a cutting fluid is normally used to cool and lubricate the cutting tool. Whether a cutting fluid is used or not, and the suitable type of cutting fluid to be used, are influenced by the type and scope of the cutting condition.

These days, other types of metal cutting are becoming popular – for instance water jet cutting. This involves using pressurized water in excess of 620 MPa (90 000 psi) to cut metal into a finished product. This process is known as cold cutting, and is relatively more efficient compared to plasma and laser cutting.

TecTools has more than three decades’ worth of experience manufacturing and supplying high quality tools. We are one of the leading manufacturers of Cutting Tools, Carbide Tools, Lathe Tools, Threading Tools and Turning Tools. Our quality is top notch and our prices are competitive. We look forward to providing you with customized tools that meet your requirements and exceptional customer service.

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